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MLA: Making a Works-Cited/Bibliography


The purpose of a bibliography (or a "Works Cited" page) is to record all the works (magazines, books, newspapers, pamphlets, TV news, etc.) that you actually used to get information for your research project.

You need to introduce three basic units of information for most sources:

author title publication information
Author's last name, first name. Title. City where published: publishing company, year.

For a book, you can find all this information on the front and back of the title page. For a magazine, check the cover. If you are using SIRS, we have a separate handout.

The Bibliography/Works Cited goes on its own page with its own title. The format is called "hanging indentation", designed for easy reading. It's the reverse of a paragraph. Arrange the items in alphabetical order, in relation to each other, without numbers. Double space between all lines and between entries.

Here are some examples. Notice punctuation.

I. Book with one author:

Strickland, Ron. Pacific Northwest Trail Guide. Seattle: The Writing Works, 1984.

II. Book with two authors:

MacLachlan, Colin M., and Jamie E. Forbes. The Forging of the Cosmic Race. New York: Norton, 1982. (notice that the second name is not reversed)

III. Book with three or more authors:

Bellah, Robert, et al. Habits of the Heart. New York: Bantam, 1990.
(list first author and then "et al." for "and others.")

IV. One part out of a collection of different authors:

If you used only one article, chapter, or essay out of a collection of different authors, begin with the part you read, then the book. In a collection, you will probably have an editor, whose name goes after the book title. Notice in this cas e, that you use page numbers to show where to find this particular article, essay, or chapter.

Jackson, Jesse. "The Call of Conscience." Individualism and Commitment in American Life. Ed. Robert Bellah, et al. New York: Harper & Row, 1987. 363-65.

Wyrick, Jean, ed. Steps to Writing Well: With Additional Readings. 2nd ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt, 1993.

V. Encyclopedia or other reference work:

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Encyclopedia. Year of edition.

List the author's name first if one is given. Don't use a page number. If there is no author, begin with article title, like this:

"Beyond the Atom." The Random House Encyclopedia. 1983 ed.

VI. Periodicals:

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Month Year: page #.
Graham, Mary. "Unprotected Children." Atlantic Monthly March 1993: 20-29.
List the author's name if one is given. If no author is given, start with the title. Notice the page numbers; if paging skips around, just add a plus to the page number: 36+.

VII. Newspapers:

(If there is no author, begin with title of article.)
Dunphy, James. "Economic Memo." Seattle Times/Post Intelligencer 11 Apr. 1993, Sec. D: 1+.

VIII. Pamphlet:

(If there is no author, begin with title. If no publisher is given, write "n.p.")
"Safety Tips for Washington Earthquakes." Olympia: State of Washington. (no date)

IX. Personal or Telephone Interview:

Nozit, Ida. Personal Interview. 25 Apr. 1993.
Harrison, Michael. Telephone Interview. 3 June 1995.

X. Speech or Lecture:

Marvel, Ken. Class Lecture. Biology 100. Edmonds C.C., 15 Mar. 1993.

XI. Radio or TV Program:

(Get original production information if you can. If you miss it, use the station on which you saw it.)
"Anatomy of a Hospital Takeover." Ethics in America. KCTS, Seattle. 1 May 1993.

XII. Class Handouts:

"Genesis." Class Handout. English 205I. Edmonds Community College. 18 March 1998.

If you have any questions, please call 425.640.1750.