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Coordination and Subordination

Coordination: Combining Two Ideas That Could Be Two Separate Sentences:

Option I. FANBOYS Conjunctions (For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So)

Thought #1 , conjunction thought #2
Nora wants to buy a new car , and she has enough money.
Nora wants to buy a new car , but she doesn't have enough money.
Nora wants to buy a new car , for her old car has broken down.
Nora wants to buy a new car , or she will have to take the bus.
Nora wants to buy a new car , so she has been saving money.
Nora wants to buy a new car , yet she will probably buy a used one.


Option II. Semicolon Only

Thought #1 ; thought #2
Nora wants to buy a new car ; she has enough money.


Option III. Semicolon and Transition Word

Thought #1 ; transition, thought #2
Nora wants to buy a new car ; however, she doesn't have enough money.
Nora wants to buy a new car ; furthermore, she wants a new apartment.
Nora wants to buy a new car ; indeed, she definitely needs one.
Nora wants to buy a new car ; in fact, she has been saving for two years.
Nora wants to buy a new car ; moreover, she needs it by the end of the week.
Nora wants to buy a new car ; nevertheless, she will settle for a used car.
Nora wants to buy a new car ; then, she will not have to take the bus.
Nora wants to buy a new car ; therefore, she will save $100 per month.


Subordination: Combining Two Ideas That Could Not Be Two Separate Sentences:

Use no comma if the subordinate clause comes at the end of the sentence.
  1. Nora wants to buy a new car although she doesn't have enough money.
  2. Nora wants to buy a new car after she has saved enough money.
  3. Nora wants to buy a new car because her old car broke down.
  4. Nora wants to buy a new car when she has saved enough money.
Use a comma if the subordinate clause comes at the beginning of the sentence.
  1. Although she doesn't have enough money, Nora wants to buy a new car.
  2. After she has saved enough money, Nora wants to buy a new car.
  3. Because her old car broke down, Nora wants to buy a new car.
  4. When she has saved enough money, Nora wants to buy a new car.
Subordinators Make Incomplete Thoughts

after how unless
although if until
as no matter how when
as if now that whenever
as though once where
because than wherever
before that whether
even if though while
even though till why



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